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  • Vasculitis is inflammation of your blood vessels. It causes changes in the blood vessel walls, including thickening, weakening, narrowing or scarring. These changes can restrict blood flow, resulting in organ and tissue damage.

    There are many types of vasculitis, and most of them are rare. Vasculitis might affect just one organ, or several.
    Vasculitis can affect anyone, though some types are more common among certain groups. Depending on the type you have, you may improve without treatment. Some types require medications to control the inflammation and prevent flare-ups.

    Vasculitis is also known as angiitis and arteritis.

    Clinical features

    • Fever
    • Headache
    • Fatigue
    • Weight loss
    • General aches and pains
    • Night sweats
    • Rash
    • Nerve problems, such as numbness or weakness


    1. Behcet’s disease –Signs and symptoms include mouth and genital ulcers, eye inflammation, and acne-like skin lesions

    2. Buerger’s disease – Inflammation and clots in the blood vessels of your hands and feet, resulting in pain and ulcers in these areas

    3. Churg-Strauss syndrome – It mainly affects the lungs, skin, kidneys, heart and nerves in your limbs. Signs and symptoms vary greatly and include asthma, skin changes, nerve pain and nasal allergies.

    4. Cryoglobulinemia- Signs and symptoms include rash, joint pain, weakness, and numbness or tingling

    5. Giant cell arteritis – Can cause headaches, scalp tenderness, jaw pain, blurred or double vision, and even blindness. It is also called temporal arteritis.

    6. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis – This condition causes inflammation of the blood vessels in your nose, sinuses, throat, lungs and kidneys. Signs and symptoms include nasal stuffiness, sinus infections, nosebleeds and possibly coughing up blood.

    7. Henoch-Schonlein purpura – (IgA vasculitis). This condition is more common in children than in adults, and causes inflammation of the smallest blood vessels (capillaries) of your skin, joints, bowel and kidneys. Signs and symptoms include abdominal pain, blood in the urine, joint pain, and a rash on your buttocks or lower legs.

    8. Kawasaki disease – The primary sign of this condition is red spots on your skin, usually on your lower legs.
    9. Takayasu’s arteritis- Affects the larger arteries in the body, including the aorta. Signs and symptoms include joint pain, loss of pulse, high blood pressure, night sweats, fever, general malaise, appetite loss, headaches and visual changes.

    10. Polyarteritis nodosa. This form of vasculitis usually affects the kidneys, the digestive tract, the nerves and the skin. Signs and symptoms include a rash, general malaise, weight loss, muscle and joint pain, abdominal pain after eating, high blood pressure, muscle pain and weakness, and kidney problems
    Treatment- depends upon severity, organ involvement and relapse. various drugs available are

    1. Glucocorticoids
    2. NSAIDs
    3. Colchicine
    4. Immunosuppressants – Methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate, cyclophosphamide
    5. Biologics – rituximab, anti TNF agents