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  • Lupus is a systemic autoimmune disease that occurs when your body’s immune system attacks your own tissues and organs. Inflammation caused by lupus can affect many different body systems — including your joints, skin, kidneys, blood cells, brain, heart and lungs.

    Lupus can be difficult to diagnose because its signs and symptoms often mimic those of other ailments. The most distinctive sign of lupus — a facial rash that resembles the wings of a butterfly unfolding across both cheeks — occurs in many but not all cases of lupus.

    Some people are born with a tendency toward developing lupus, which may be triggered by infections, certain drugs or even sunlight.

    Clinical features:

    Depend on which body systems are affected by the disease. The most common signs and symptoms include:
    • Fatigue
    • Fever
    • Joint pain, stiffness and swelling
    • Butterfly-shaped rash on the face that covers the cheeks and bridge of the nose or rashes elsewhere on the body
    • Skin lesions that appear or worsen with sun exposure (photosensitivity)
    • Fingers and toes that turn white or blue when exposed to cold or during stressful periods (Raynaud’s phenomenon)
    • Shortness of breath
    • Chest pain
    • Dry eyes
    • Headaches, confusion and memory loss

    Treatment :

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
    Antimalarial drugs: Hydroxychloroquine

    Corticosteroids: Prednisone , Methylprednisolone are often used to control serious disease that involves the kidneys and brain.
    Immunosuppressants: Azathioprine, Mycophenolate mofetil and Methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, tacrolimus

    Biologics : Belimumab, Rituximab